ERYTHROXYLUM COCA SEED
Coca Seed: Viable seeds of Erythroxylum novogranatense var novogranatense (ENN), also called the Colombian Coca or Java Coca: USD $126,99 for one pack of 25 seeds ( We usually send +25 seeds as a gift. Total 50 Seeds ) (Free shipping). This is the more drought-tolerant, less finicky and more vigorous type of coca with high content of alkaloid (compared to the E.coca var coca).
ERYTHROXYLUM COCA SEED
Coca Seed is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America. Coca is known worldwide for its psychoactive alkaloid, cocaine.
The cocaine alkaloid content of dry Erythroxylum coca var. coca leaves was measured ranging from 0.23% to 0.96%. Coca-Cola used coca leaf extract in its products from 1885 until about 1903, when it began using decocainized leaf extract. Extraction of cocaine from coca requires several solvents and a chemical process known as an acid-base extraction, which can fairly easily extract the alkaloids from the plant.
The coca plant resembles a blackthorn bush, and grows to a height of 2 to 3 m (7 to 10 ft). The branches are straight, and the leaves are thin, opaque, oval, and taper at the extremities. A marked characteristic of the leaf is an areolated portion bounded by two longitudinal curved lines, one line on each side of the midrib, and more conspicuous on the under face of the leaf.
The flowers are small, and disposed in clusters on short stalks; the corolla is composed of five yellowish-white petals, the anthers are heart-shaped, and the pistil consists of three carpels united to form a three-chambered ovary. The flowers mature into red berries.
SPECIES AND EVOLUTION
There are two species of coca crops, each with two varieties:
- Erythroxylum coca var. coca (Bolivian or Huánuco Coca) – well adapted to the eastern Andes of Peru and Bolivia, an area of humid, tropical, montane forest.
- Erythroxylum coca var. ipadu (Amazonian Coca) – cultivated in the lowland Amazon Basin in Peru and Colombia.
- Erythroxylum Coca Seed; novogranatense var. novogranatense (Colombian Coca) – a highland variety that is utilized in lowland areas. It is cultivated in drier regions found in Colombia. However, E. novogranatense is very adaptable to varying ecological conditions. The leaves have parallel lines on either side of the central vein. These plants are called “Hayo” or “Ayu” among certain groups in Venezuela and Colombia.
- Erythroxylum novogranatense var. truxillense (Trujillo Coca) – grown primarily in the Cajamarca and Amazonas states in Peru, including for the Empresa Nacional de la Coca S.A. and export by Coca-Cola for beverage flavoring.
- All four of the cultivated cocas were domesticated in pre-Columbian times, with significant archaeological sites reaching from Colombia to northern Chile, including the Las Vegas Culture in Ecuador, the Huaca Prieta site in Peru, and the Nanchoc valley in Peru – where leaf fragments and lime “cal” additives have been dated to over 8,000 years before present.
- An initial theory of the origin and evolution of the cocas by Plowman and Bohm suggested that Erythroxylum coca var. coca is ancestral, while Erythroxylum novogranatense var. truxillense is derived from it to be drought tolerant, and Erythroxylum novogranatense var. novogranatense was further derived from Erythroxylum novogranatense var. truxillense in a linear series. In addition, E. coca var. ipadu was separately derived from E. coca var. coca when plants were taken into the Amazon basin.
- Genetic evidence (Johnson et al. in 2005, Emche et al. in 2011, and Islam 2011) does not support this linear evolution. None of the four coca varieties are found in the wild, despite prior speculation by Plowman that wild populations of E. coca var. coca occur in the Huánuco and San Martín provinces of Peru.
- Recent phylogenetic evidence shows the closest wild relatives of the coca crops are Erythroxylum gracilipes Peyr. and Erythroxylum cataractarum Spruce ex. Peyr, and dense sampling of these species along with the coca crops from throughout their geographic ranges supports independent origins of domestication of Erythroxylum novogranatense and Erythroxylum coca from ancestor Erythroxylum gracilipes.
- It is possible that Amazonian coca was produced by yet a third independent domestication event from Erythroxylum gracilipes.Thus, different early-Holocene peoples in different areas of South America independently transformed Erythroxylum gracilipes plants into quotidian stimulant and medicinal crops now collectively called coca.